From lake sturgeon in the classroom to free-flowing rivers, innovative arts performances to free preschool programs, the Petoskey-Harbor Springs Area Community Foundation is pleased to support a variety of community projects with grants totaling $204,552. As part of its Spring 2019 grant cycle, the Community Foundation made grants to 33 community nonprofits and municipalities whose work spans arts and culture, human services, environment, recreation, health, education and community and economic development. Congratulations to all recipients! To learn more about the grants supported this cycle, please peruse the complete list below.

Our grantmaking is only possible through our generous donors. Thank you to all who contribute to our Fund for the Community, Fund for Youth, field of interest funds and/or donor advised funds. Your gifts help us address needs and advance opportunities throughout Emmet County and assure that we improve the quality of life for all people in Emmet County.

If you would like to learn more about the Community Foundation, and how we can help you give back to this special region, please call us at 231-348-5820, email, or stop by our office at 616 Petoskey Street, Suite 203, Petoskey.


Charlevoix Circle of Arts
Recruit Emmet County students for orchestra classes
Amount granted: $7,000
The Charlevoix Circle of Arts is home to the Dorothy Gerber Strings Program. While most schools north of Traverse City offer band class, none of them offer a strings or orchestra alternative. That’s where the Dorothy Gerber Strings Program steps in. For the last 20 years, this program has provided stringed instrument instruction throughout Emmet, Charlevoix and Antrim County schools. The program would like to increase student and parent awareness of its offerings, and hopefully recruit new student musicians. A grant to this project will help the Dorothy Gerber Strings Program create short marketing videos and distribute branded materials to students.

Crojik’s Croft
Offer a public dance performance that features audience participation
Amount granted: $1,200
Crojik’s Croft is an artist residency that provides performance artists a platform to cultivate their creativity, a refuge in nature where they can draw inspiration and nourishment from, and an opportunity to share their art with the Northern Michigan community and beyond. In June, Crojik’s Croft will host the New York-based performance artist, choreographer, and writer Trina Mannino, for a series of performances, workshops, and public art creation. While in residency, Ms. Mannino will develop a performance specific to Northern Michigan, exploring how both dance/movement and fiber art are connected. The performance will include the audience, who can choose to become part of it by helping to create a unique woven piece of art. Mannino will help the audience to appreciate how our physical movements, through dance or simply moving through the world, can result in a tapestry of motion no less real than a woven piece of art, and how critical it is for all of us to see each other as part of a larger tapestry of community rather than separate pieces. A grant to this project will help cover costs to bring Ms. Mannino here.

Crooked Tree Arts Center
Upgrade insulation and lighting at our community art center
Amount granted: $6,000
Each year, more than 50,000 people step inside Crooked Tree Art Center’s (CTAC) 118-year old building to visit the art galleries, enroll in a class, attend a concert, listen to a lecture, view a film, take a guided tour or enjoy special events. CTAC is in the middle of a multi-year effort to refresh its facility. In the last few years the Center replaced its roof, installed an LED lighting system and refinished its flooring. Now the Center is turning its attention to the attic space, which needs new insulation and electrical wiring. The heat loss through the lack of insulation is causing significant ice dams on the roof, and the attic’s damaged electrical wiring is preventing outdoor light fixtures from working. A grant to this project will help cover repair costs.

Great Lakes Center for the Arts
Enjoy free art activities and a performance by the U.S. Coast Guard Band
Amount granted: $4,000
The mission of Great Lakes Center for the Arts is to inspire, entertain and educate through performing arts. It aims to offer our community year-round, world-class performances at affordable pricing. In August the Center will hold a Community Open House featuring a day of free activities and performances for the general public to enjoy. Activities might include make-your-own-music experiences and/or local musicians conducting short demonstrations. The Open House will also feature a free performance by the U.S. Coast Guard Band. Based at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy in New London, Connecticut, the 55-member Coast Guard Band frequently appears in Washington, DC, at presidential and cabinet level functions. Historic performances include National Christmas Tree lighting ceremonies, the American Bicentennial Celebration with President Gerald Ford, World War II Fiftieth Anniversary events in England, and Inaugural celebrations for every President since Herbert Hoover. A grant to this project will help cover Community Open House costs.

Great Lakes Chamber Orchestra
Get into the Halloween spirit with a themed classical music concert
Amount granted: $6,000
This October the Great Lakes Chamber Orchestra (GLCO) will present a new concert titled “Angels & Demons.” The concert will feature Schubert “Death and the Maiden,” Andre Caplet “Mask of Red Death” for harp and strings, and Ravel “Pavane for a Dead Princess.” It will take place at the Emmet County Fairgrounds, so GLCO may share its classical music with a broader demographic in a more casual setting. Concertgoers will also enjoy a variety of local foods and beverages onsite, celebrating the autumn harvest. A grant to this project will help cover concert production costs.

Harbor Springs Festival of the Book
Provide books to students to support home literacy
Amount granted: $4,000
The Harbor Springs Festival of the Book is a three-day festival with more than 50 traditionally published authors and illustrators throughout Harbor Springs. The Festival is committed to meeting children in their classrooms where the highest number of students have the opportunity to engage in creative conversations with the presenters. Research on literacy shows that the number of books in a home is predictive of a child’s success, not only in reading, but his or her level of education in general. A grant to this project will allow the Festival to purchase books to be placed in classrooms, school libraries and directly in the hands of children, inspiring more kids to develop a love for books, authors and reading!

Little Traverse Choral Society
Support special choral performances to celebrate 30 years of singing
Amount granted: $3,000
For 30 years, Little Traverse Choral Society (LTCS) has been performing distinctive choral music to enrich cultural life in Northern Michigan. To mark its 30th anniversary in 2019, LTCS will carry out a series of special activities, including two 30th anniversary concerts on May 18-19. The concerts will feature favorites from past concerts, as well as new repertoire celebrating the joy of singing. One of the concerts will be held at the Great Lakes Center for the Arts, allowing LTCS to reach new audiences and collaborate with our area’s new performing arts venue. The cost associated with renting this venue, however, is higher than the venues in which LTCS typically performs. A grant to this project will help support the costs of producing and performing the 30th anniversary concerts.

Little Traverse Civic Theatre
Upgrade equipment to ensure smooth performances by our community theatre group
Amount granted: $1,590
Little Traverse Civic Theatre (LTCT) has been providing high-quality theatrical entertainment to Emmet County residents and visitors for nearly 75 years. The all-volunteer organization performs four plays a year, with each play performed seven times. During performances, the stage manager communicates with various technicians (lighting, sound, props, etc.) though closed-circuit headphones. However, this equipment is old and becoming increasingly unreliable. LTCT has had several ‘near misses’ during performances, with technicians not receiving their cues efficiently. LTCT wants to replace its old headphone system with a new full-duplex wireless intercom system containing a central hub and six headsets. A grant to this project will help LTCT purchase a new intercom system.

Little Traverse Historical Society
Learn about the culinary history of our region
Amount granted: $5,000
This summer the Little Traverse Historical Society will curate an exhibit on the history of food and drink in the Little Traverse Bay area. It will span several eras, from the early Odawa to current food trends. One part of the exhibit will capture memories from visitors about their favorite restaurants. They will be invited to write their personal stories on images of the restaurants, and ‘post them’ in the exhibit as if they were posting food orders in a commercial kitchen. A grant to this project will help cover exhibit design costs.

Raven Hill Discovery Center
Improve accessibility on Raven Hill’s campus
Amount granted: $5,000
For more than 25 years, Raven Hill Discovery Center has fostered connections between science, history and art through their museum exhibits and classroom programming. Currently some areas of the museum campus need to be remodeled to ensure they are American Disabilities Act (ADA) compliant. Raven Hill would like to extend existing sidewalks and add new sidewalks to create ADA-friendly access to its main entrance, Fiber Studio and picnic area. It also hopes to build a retaining wall between the parking and picnic areas. Never one to miss an opportunity for fun and learning, Raven Hill’s executive director, Cheri Leach, also intends to use the retaining wall as a canvas for youth mural paintings. A grant to this project will help cover ADA sidewalk installation and mural painting.


City of Petoskey
Conduct energy audits to improve future efficiency of city facilities
Amount granted: $6,000
In late 2018, the City of Petoskey identified the goal to “develop and promote community sustainability measures.” As part of this goal, the city has been working with the Community Foundation and nonprofit energy experts on a grant funded by the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation to advance renewable energy within the city. One of the grant activities allowed the city to have an energy audit conducted on City Hall and the Department of Public Works buildings. To build on that momentum, the city plans to hire a consultant to conduct energy audits on three additional buildings within the city. Two of the three buildings are over 30 years old and all offer opportunities for implementation of sustainable and renewable energy practices. Prior to making investments or upgrades, an energy audit will reveal what opportunities to improve energy use and efficiency exist. A grant to the City of Petoskey will allow them to hire a consultant to conduct energy audits on three city buildings.


Great Start Collaborative
Enable quality preschool experiences for all children
Amount granted: $8,500
Great Start Collaborative is a partnership of more than 30 organizations working to strengthen families and improve outcomes for children in Charlevoix, Emmet and northern Antrim Counties. They envision a time when every child is nurtured and supported in a way that allows them to achieve their maximum potential. Many families in our region are forced to choose between providing their child with a much-needed preschool experience or meeting their basic needs of living. There are two government programs that offer free preschool for children based on financial need, but they reach capacity quickly and leave approximately 65+ local children wait-listed. A grant to this project will provide scholarships for wait-listed children to attend high quality, tuition-based preschools in our area.

Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians
Teach children science, history and Odawa culture with Lake Sturgeon in the classroom
Amount granted: $10,452
For the last six years, Little Traverse Bay Bands (LTBB) of Odawa Indians has provided local classrooms with a fish tank and a young Lake Sturgeon—a culturally significant fish to LTBB. Students care for the fish throughout the school year while taking part in multiple science-based lessons centered on the fish. In caring for it, students connect science, history, and LTBB culture as it relates to Lake Sturgeon. However, the current fish tanks require a lot of maintenance and do not provide an ideal environment for Lake Sturgeon to thrive. Many classroom fish have died due to problems with the tanks, which is frustrating for teachers and disappointing for students who have bonded with the fish. A grant to this project will help LTBB purchase new and improved tanks for this unique program.

Petoskey Public Schools
Renovate the High School’s cross country course
Amount granted: $5,000
In 2016 the High School stadium project included funding for a cross country course. What resulted was a course with good basic structure, but lacking in some necessary elements to make it a safe, athlete- and spectator-friendly venue. A grant to this project will help fund renovations to the course—moving dirt, flattening and seeding the starting area and two egresses in and out of a practice field. These modifications will benefit more than 130 Petoskey Middle and High School students who participate in cross country running, and will increase the capacity for Petoskey High School to host invitational meets.


Conservation Resource Alliance
Replace the Gill Road culvert crossing with a timber bridge
Amount granted: $10,000
Conservation Resource Alliance (CRA) works to enhance local economies through sensible natural resource management. Serving a 15-country region across northwest lower Michigan, CRA’s biologists, engineers, and business experts address complex resource issues from water quality and fisheries to rural business development and wildlife management. CRA is currently working to replace the culvert crossing of the Carp Lake River on Gill Road with a timber bridge. Doing so will help restore the river’s ecological functions. It will improve the transport of sediments and woody debris, increase the water quality of the river, allow for greater movement of fish and other species, and restore the connectivity and natural flow of the river. A grant to this project will help cover bridge planning and construction costs.

NCMC Foundation
Install solar panels and electric car charging station to serve as demonstration to the community
Amount granted: $7,500
The 2019 class of Leadership Little Traverse (LLT) and North Central Michigan College Foundation are working to increase awareness of the accessibility of clean energy and the beneficial impact it has on a community. Solarize Petoskey will install an 8 kilowatt solar panel array on the campus of North Central Michigan College (NCMC). To demonstrate a real world use for solar energy, an electric-car charging station will be installed in conjunction with the solar array. In addition to producing renewable energy connected to the City of Petoskey electrical grid, the project is intended to generate interest and expansion from the broader community about solar energy in Emmet County, and LLT estimates it will spur two additional private installations within the first 18 months. LLT is also connecting with local schools to explore the learning opportunity solar panels present with the Next Generation Science Standards. A grant to this project will help LLT purchase solar panels for installation at NCMC.

Tip of the Mitt Watershed Council
Invest in technological enhancements to protect lakes and streams
Amount granted: $12,100
Tip of the Mitt Watershed Council has conducted aquatic plant invasive species surveys on area lakes for many years. Typically the surveys are repeated every five years to monitor the spread of existing species and introductions of new species. Several years ago, aquatic species surveys were completed on Pickerel, Crooked and Larks Lakes using a camera and paper survey sheets. To increase the efficiency and enhance the quality of the aquatic plant and other surveys, the Watershed Council seeks to purchase a drone. The drone will provide greatly improved images and the Watershed Council’s ability to survey, assess, and manage our water resources. Previous experience contracting with a drone pilot to conduct a shoreline survey provided improved results but at a prohibitive cost. A grant to this project will support the purchase of the drone and staff time to conduct the aquatic surveys on Pickerel, Crooked and Larks Lakes.


Alzheimer’s Association – Greater Michigan Chapter
Provide support and education for caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s and dementia
Amount granted: $5,000
About one in 10 Americans aged 65 and older has Alzheimer’s or dementia. That means, in Northern Michigan, more than 22,000 people are affected by Alzheimer’s disease alone. It is the sixth leading cause of death in America, and one in three seniors dies with Alzheimer’s or another dementia. Caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s or dementia often face isolation, economic hardship, and increasing physical and emotional demands, which can lead to new and worsening emotional and physical health problems for caregivers. Rural families who are diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease or dementia experience higher risks of stress and lack access to resources and education. The Alzheimer’s Association of Greater Michigan wishes to help them reduce the burden on caregivers and provide support to resources as families navigate the disease. A grant to this project will expand dementia education programming in Emmet County by providing five education programs in addition to providing care consultation services and caregiver support groups in Harbor Springs and Petoskey.

Harbor Hall
Provide quality, affordable treatment for drug, alcohol and gambling additions
Amount granted: $8,000
Harbor Hall provides treatment for substance abuse, gambling and accompanying mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Treatment is conducted in both residential and outpatient settings. Harbor Hall would like to incorporate new therapy techniques in its treatment, including EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing), MRT (Moral Recognition Therapy), Thinking Matters and Prime For Life. A grant to this project will help cover staff training costs to learn these techniques, as well as provide financial assistance to patients who cannot afford insurance co-pays for their treatment costs.

Northern Michigan Equine Therapy
Replace worn therapy equipment and provide new enrichment activities
Amount granted: $3,000
Northern Michigan Equine Therapy (NMET) uses the healing nature of horses as a therapeutic tool. In 2018, NMET provided 969 therapy sessions, and increase of nearly 20% from 2017. In order to provide the highest quality therapy, NMET seeks to replace worn therapy saddles and acquire new equipment and activities for the children’s therapy program. Currently, the arena has very minimal equipment to meet the varied needs of clients. For example, therapy mirrors would allow the client to see how their body is aligned with their horse and see the therapist’s adjustment, even if they cannot feel the adjustment. A grant to this project would allow NMET to replace worn therapy saddles and purchase enrichment equipment for therapy sessions.

Northwest Michigan Hospice
Educate senior citizens and family members on the importance of advance care planning
Amount granted: $5,000
Northwest Michigan Hospice provides comprehensive physical, emotional and spiritual care to individuals and their families during and following life-limiting illness. Its new program, “Grave Decisions Are Brave Decisions,” seeks to educate people on the importance of advance care planning–a process that enables individuals to make plans about their future health care. Advance care plans provide direction to healthcare professionals when a person is not in a position to make and/or communicate their own healthcare choices. Advance care planning aims to allow people to live well, and when death approaches, die in accordance with their personal values. A grant to this project will help Northwest Michigan Hospice organize advance care planning presentations throughout Emmet County and help individuals complete advance care planning forms.

Planned Parenthood of Michigan
Provide sexual health education for individuals with substance use disorder
Amount granted: $12,000
Planned Parenthood of Michigan promotes healthy communities and the right of all individuals to manage their sexual health by providing health care and education. In 2016, Michigan and its 11 northern lower Michigan counties, were one of 27 states and 220 counties identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for being extremely vulnerable to an HIV/Hepatitis C (HCV) outbreak due to high opioid use. Despite well documented links between substance use and high risk sexual behavior and sexual violence, prevention, education and treatment programs often fail to address these links. A grant to this project will allow Planned Parenthood to provide outreach and education services to individuals at Harbor Hall and Lakeview Academy to help reduce their risk of contracting HIV/HCV and other sexually transmitted infections, and to prevent unintended pregnancy.


Char-Em United Way
Train the next leaders of a longstanding human service organization
Amount granted: $1,080
True to its name, the mission of Char-Em United Way is to unite the people and resources of Charlevoix and Emmet Counties to build strong communities. The organization funds programs in a variety of areas: education, literacy, transportation, poverty reduction and more. Char-Em United Way has gone through significant change over the last year, as longtime staff has moved on. Currently all employees, from the Office Manager to the Executive Director, have been in place for a year or less. This has created a steep learning curve within the organization. Recognizing this, current staff are aware that training and professional development are essential to stabilizing and growing Char-Em United Way’s services. A grant to this project will help cover costs for staff to attend trainings essential to their line of work.

Justice for Our Neighbors West Michigan
Provide family and humanitarian-based immigration legal services to individuals and families
Amount granted: $5,500
Justice for Our Neighbors Michigan provides free immigration legal services to low income individuals and families, community education, and advocacy. Census data indicates there are approximately 600 foreign-born residents living in Emmet County. Typically, half of them have attained citizenship. Virtually all others need some form of legal assistance to maintain or obtain lawful immigration status. Across the nation, the average immigration case costs $5,000 in attorney fees, and is not affordable to many. The cost and uncertainty of the outcome creates the potential for people with unaddressed immigration concerns to be preyed upon with the unfounded promise of legal status in return for large payments of money. A grant to this project will allow Justice for Our Neighbors to provide an immigration legal clinic in Petoskey to reach individuals who could benefit from their services.

Manna Food Project
Provide pantry clients the skills and opportunity to Cook Well and Eat Well
Amount granted: $7,500
The mission of Manna Food Project is to feed the hungry in Northern Michigan. To promote the health and well-being of its food pantry clients, Manna has partnered with the Health Department of Northwest Michigan and Groundwork Center for Resilient Communities to develop a set of nutritional guidelines, which will guide Manna’s procurement of food items. The Cook Well, Eat Well initiative continues Manna’s emphasis on fresh fruits and vegetables in one’s daily diet with expanded educational and cooking demonstration components. A grant to this project will allow Manna to purchase locally sourced, farm-fresh produce for free distribution to food pantries and community kitchens, conduct cooking classes for pantry clients, and provide nutrition education on the five food groups specified by United States Department of Agriculture’s MyPlate.

Northern Community Mediation
Produce short videos that educate people on different types of mediation
Amount granted: $2,125
Northern Community Mediation (NCM) helps people resolve conflicts in Emmet and Charlevoix Counties, without the use of litigation—which can be costly both financially and emotionally for all parties involved. Mediation provides an alternative means of resolving conflict, one that is less confrontational and less of a burden on court systems. NCM would like to produce a series of short videos to educate current and potential clients on different types of mediation, to help them understand and feel more comfortable with the process. A grant to this project will help cover video production costs.

Northwest Michigan Habitat for Humanity
Help build two homes for our area’s working families
Amount granted: $13,250
Northwest Michigan Habitat for Humanity (NWMHFH) is dedicated to meeting the need for housing in our region. In the past year, NWMHFH has increased its capacity from an average of 1.5 homes built per year to four homes this year alone. Beginning this summer, NWMHFH will begin three new projects, two of which will take place in the heart of Oden. The first project is a rehabilitation of an existing home. The second will be an indoor stick built modular home as part of a new pilot program, The Habitat Home Ready Program. The program aims to serve below median income, mortgage-ready households in a 4-6 month timeframe, which greatly reduces the time to occupation for a Habitat home. A grant to Habitat for Humanity will cover a portion of the roof, window and siding costs on the rehabbed home, and excavation and foundation work for the indoor stick built modular home.

Women’s Resource Center
Help improve safety for women and children at Safe Home shelter
Amount granted: $5,000
The Women’s Resource Center of Northern Michigan (WRCNM) is committed to equality, justice, and the well-being of women. As part of WRCNM’s Domestic Abuse Program, the Safe Home serves local survivors of domestic abuse and their children who are fleeing danger. The Safe Home is housed in an antique farmhouse, over 100 years old, so much of the current wiring, lighting and outlets are insufficient for modern needs. There are few outlets in the bedrooms and living areas, which do not meet the current needs of families who stay there and the increasing amount of technological devices in our daily lives. The basement storage area has just two small overhead lights, making the area dark and difficult to use. A grant to this project will help the WRCNM update electrical wiring, outlets and fixtures throughout the Safe Home.


Challenge Mountain
Help Challenge Mountain prepare for improvements to ski area and lodge
Amount granted: $6,000
Challenge Mountain enriches lives and empowers individuals living with disabilities through year-round adaptive recreation. As part of its strategic planning process, Challenge Mountain has identified the need for a capital campaign to fund improvements at the ski area and lodge. To prepare for this campaign, Challenge Mountain has been working to grow its fund development capacity. The first phase of this effort was completed in early 2019, which revealed that Challenge Mountain’s readiness to implement a successful campaign is closer than anticipated. A grant to this project will allow Challenge Mountain to engage in the second phase of its fund development effort, which includes hiring a professional consultant to build internal capacity for a capital campaign, develop donor strategies, and provide training for development committee and board members.

First Tee of Northern Michigan
Offer scholarships for disadvantaged youth to learn life skills through the game of golf
Amount granted: $2,000
The First Tee of Northern Michigan is the local chapter of an international youth development organization dedicated to teaching life skills, core values and healthy habits through the game of golf. In 2015, a Harbor Springs resident named Jeffrey Mathews passed away and left $10,000 to The First Tee to provide financial aid to local young people who otherwise couldn’t afford to participate in First Tee programs. Thanks to this generous bequest, approximately 75 young people have joined The First Tee. However, Matthews’s funds are depleting. A grant to this project will help The First Tee continue to provide financial aid to qualifying youth enrolled in First Tee programs.

Little Traverse Conservancy
Build a world-class mountain biking trail minutes from downtown Petoskey
Amount granted: $15,000
Little Traverse Conservancy (LTC), in partnership with the Top of Michigan Mountain Bike Association (TOMMBA), is planning to construct a multi-use, world-class mountain biking trail system on LTC’s Tanton Family Working Forest Reserve. The trail will feature three loops with one each designed for beginner, intermediate and advanced riders, totaling 6.29 miles of rolling and inviting trails. The trail will be optimized for mountain biking, but will also provide an enticing destination for those who enjoy hiking, birding, snowshoeing and other sports. It will be free and open to the public. A grant to this project will help cover trail planning and construction costs.

Little Traverse Sailors
Provide safe opportunities for youth to learn sailing and water safety skills
Amount granted: $3,755
Little Traverse Sailors (LTS) has been providing sailing instruction to the youth of the Harbor Springs area for over 40 years. During the course of normal sailing instruction, students may find themselves in the water, either by accident, or on purpose as part of a training exercise. When students are in the water, it is necessary for powerboats to be nearby to assist if needed. The powerboats remain running to be able to maneuver their position, yet propellers can pose a life threatening risk to persons in the water. A grant to this project will allow LTS to purchase eight prop covers for each of the motorized instruction boats. In addition, LTS continually works to maintain its fleet of sailboats for beginning sailors. LTS seeks to replace its fleet of aging beginner boats with PRAMs. The PRAM is a self-bailing dingy that is low maintenance and ideal for beginners. A grant to this project will also allow LTS to purchase 3 of 10 new PRAM sailboats.

Village of Alanson
Help develop the park at Alanson’s new public swimming access
Amount granted: $8,000
In 2019, Village of Alanson residents identified development of Sandy Beach Park area as the highest priority for the Village. The park exists in a slow moving section of the Crooked River where residents can freely access an area of the river where boat traffic is minimal. However, the existence of a sand bar created by improper erosion control on adjoining McPhee Creek has forced residents further into the river, creating a hazard to boat traffic and recreational swimmers. A grant from the Health Department of Northwest Michigan will help the Village dredge and implement erosion control and remediation measures along the shore. A grant to this project will assist with phase two of the project: development of the natural area into an official Village park to include a water bottle filling station, recycling and trash receptacles, swimming barriers, and sustainable recycled seating created from plastic caps collected by Alanson Elementary students.